In a recent interview I had with Dr. Timothy Clark, the mastermind behind  LeaderFactor and author of “The 4 Stages of Psychological Safety: Defining the  Path to Inclusion and Innovation,” he breathed new life into the concept of psychological safety in the organizational landscape. By connecting the dots from psychologist Carl Rogers’s pioneering work in 1954 to the insights gleaned from  Google’s Project Aristotle, Clark crafted a compelling case for psychological safety as the cornerstone of team success. 

Dr. Timothy Clark, Founder and CEO of LeaderFactor

Defining Psychological Safety in the Modern Workplace
Emphasizing the dual anchors of respect and permission, Clark illuminated the intricate design of psychological safety. He remarked, “Psychological safety gives  you the terms of engagement because it’s a function of two things—number one,  respect, and number two, permission.” Thus, he reframed the narrative:  psychological safety isn’t about avoiding discomfort or conflict but fostering an environment where all voices matter, catalyzing critical dialogue and innovation. 

Dispelling Myths: The True Nature of Psychological Safety
Clark vigorously debunked common misconceptions that perceive psychological  safety as a shield against accountability or an equivalent to “being nice.” He convincingly argued, “Accountability is not antithetical to a healthy, productive,  psychologically safe culture. It’s at the heart of it.” His insights provided a fresh perspective: psychological safety, rather than skirting conflict, sets the stage for candid dialogues and constructive dissent, creating an incubator for innovation. 

Traversing the Ladder of Psychological Safety
Detailing the journey from inclusion safety, through learner and contributor safety,  to challenger safety, Clark demystified the psychological safety stages. He underscored the core of high-performing cultures: respect, permission, and accountability. Sharing a captivating anecdote about his childhood with the  Navajo, he emphasized how a focus on shared humanity over differences fosters a  feeling of inclusion and safety—a critical foundation for any healthy interaction. 

Addressing the challenges of fostering inclusion in diverse workplaces, Clark clarified, “We’re all members of the human family. If we elevate human differences  above humanity, we immediately sow seeds of division.” Thus, he framed inclusion as an intentional act that transcends diversity.

The Imperative of Leadership in Cultivating Psychological Safety
Leadership, Clark argued, plays a pivotal role in fostering a psychologically safe environment. By modeling vulnerability and rewarding team contributions, leaders could create a fertile ground for challenging the status quo, propelling growth and innovation. 

Clark paints a vivid picture of the final stage in the hierarchy of psychological safety—Challenger safety. This advanced level is where team members can openly question the established norms, pushing boundaries without fear of retaliation.  Clark succinctly encapsulates this concept, stating, “Challenger safety means that  you can challenge the status quo without fear of negative consequences.” He  further illuminates the fundamental connection between this safety stage and the  spirit of innovation, explaining, “Innovation, by its very nature, requires that we  challenge the status quo.” Thus, Clark makes clear that creating a safe space for employees to challenge norms is a key ingredient in the recipe for innovation. 

Leadership Transformed in the Age of Psychological Safety
As the business landscape evolves, so does leadership. Clark identified an ongoing transition from the “imperial model” to a more collaborative, inclusive paradigm. Leaders, he advised, should compensate for the loss of informal communication in hybrid or virtual settings by implementing regular, brief touchpoints and fostering explicit communication. 

Clark’s parting words for leaders were poignant: to create psychologically safe environments, they must start by modeling and rewarding vulnerability and measuring the current psychological safety levels in their organizations. He recommended tools and resources available at as a stepping stone in this journey, concluding, “You can’t lead without an intimate understanding of the human condition. You can’t lead without understanding  people.” 

Through a deep exploration of psychological safety, Clark crafts an intricate framework that leaders can employ to foster a culture of respect, permission, and accountability. His powerful insights provide leaders with a transformative lens to reimagine their role in cultivating a vibrant, innovative, and inclusive organizational culture.

To listen to the full interview or read the transcript, just click here.

Denver Frederick, Host of The Business of Giving serves as a Trusted Advisor and Executive Coach to Nonprofit Leaders. His Book, The Business of Giving: New Best Practices for Nonprofit and Philanthropic Leaders in an Uncertain World, is available now on Amazon and Barnes & Noble.

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